It is not feasible to establish a Ministry of Science and Technology. Ministers occupy political positions, and in themselves, in our country, are unstable; The candidate’s experience is not measured, and the position usually lasts for a short period, in an activity where the challenges are medium and long-term; It requires artistic independence and political stability.
Let’s make some comparisons: The United States is currently the world’s leading scientific and technological powerhouse, and it does not have a Ministry of Science and Technology (Office of Science and Technology Policy – OSTP). The same thing happens in European society and the United Kingdom (science councils), where unrestricted access to technology is the least unequal on the planet.
In Peru, there are 13 research institutes specializing in the public sector, in different ministries, for example National Institute of Agricultural Research – INIA (Food and Rural Action), Peruvian Amazon Research Institute – IIAP (Biodiversity Reserve del Mundo), Geophysical Institute Peru – IGP (Earthquake country), among others; Unfortunately, they bear a large administrative burden and little to no innovative research and development.
Eighteen years ago, e-government was created, digital today. However, the epidemic has shown that there is no capacity for digital public administration, as the distribution of bonds to the most vulnerable households has failed.
There is no doubt that changes are needed that the next government will need to make, especially when there is an agreement that allows, over the next five years, $ 300 million in external resources from the World Bank for Innovation and Technology.
Concerning the National Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Concytec), attached to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, it is in the process of restructuring; The next government should finish this process, because Concytec should coordinate with specialized national research institutes and with regions, to integrate the digital media needed for the country’s development.
In reviewing the experiences in science and technology management, the example of South Korea stands out, which, although it has a ministry, like North Korea, is far superior to the latter and promotes its technology around the world. It took 40 years of effort between universities, the private sector and the state, based on good education, where the smartphone with the Internet was established as the main school tool, under the system of “smart education”; The first condition to achieve its current development.
While South Korea has a budget of $ 5.3 billion for technology in 2021, Peru is the country with the least investment in this in all of America (its annual average is 0.12% of GDP). According to economist Michael Porter, in the 2011 CADE, Peru has a major lag in innovation and technology. Not only has Peru made progress in this area, it appears to be backing down, he noted.
In our case, the PISA exam considered education in 2018 among the worst in the world (64 out of 77). Additionally, a report from the Ministry of Education itself in 2017 indicated that only 10% of teachers have some digital skills. With these limitations, teachers, using Zoom and WhatsApp, have been able to achieve distance education according to their potential.
In this context, the Ministry of Education should serve regular basic education students and private and public technology centers, as well as appoint a director for Sunedu, which is why it is necessary to establish a Ministry of Science and Technology Agency in Education, which will have a great impact not only on national basic education but also Higher Education. The basic requirement for generating science and technology in the country is the quality of education, as South Korea has demonstrated through “smart education”.